January 3 was not Elena Tsezarevny Chukovskaia, granddaughter of the great writer and literary critic Korney Chukovskiy, the daughter of writer Lydia Chukovskaia, a remarkable man, who gave his entire life to the service of Russian literature.
Her name was Lyusha home, and so What was her name friends and family. Daughter Lydia Chukovskaya and literary Caesar Samoilovych Volpe, she was born August 6, 1931 in Leningrad.
After the divorce with Caesar Volpe Chukovskaia Lydia married physicist MP Bronstein. In 1937, he was arrested. At any moment could be arrested Lydia Chukovsky orphanage for children arrested threatened her daughter Elena. Lydia Korneevna was forced into hiding from persecution and moved from Leningrad. At this time, Elena Chukovskaia lived in the home of his great grandfather – Corneille Chukovsky.
During the war, together with Lydia Chukovskaya and cousin – Eugene B. Chukovskii – was evacuated to Tashkent. In 1948 he entered the Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University.
As a student began to help Korney Chukovsky in his work on the anthology “Chukokkala.” Here’s what I wrote about how they work together with his granddaughter in his diary Roots Chukovsky: “… with Lyusha extremely pleasant to work with, she is so organized, so clearly separates the good from the bad, so literary that, if I had not been sick, I’ve seen would work with her is a pleasure “.
After graduating from the University in 1954 and until 1987 worked at the Research Institute of Organoelement Compounds. Since 1962 – PhD in chemistry. Since the beginning of the 1960s and up to the expulsion from the USSR selflessly risked their lives helping AI Solzhenitsyn in his underground work.
After the death of KI Chukovskiy in 1969, she and her mother inherited the rights to his works and archives. In his last letter to Lydia Korneevna Roots Chukovsky wrote: “… It is necessary to say that all ownership rights in my file, my book” Living like life “,” Chekhov “,” high art “,” My Whitman ” “Contemporary”, “From two to five”, “Repin”, “Skill Nekrasov,” “Chukokkala”, “People and books”, “Nekrasov” (1930), “The Book of Alexander Blok,” I give you and Lyusha .. . “.
For many years, Elena Tsezarevna fought for publishing the manuscript anthology Korney Chukovskiy -” Chukokkala “- its first edition (with substantial cuts) came only in 1979. In 1999, “Chukokkala” reprinted in its entirety. Uninitiated person can not explain what “Chukokkala.” Analogues in the world that there is no almanac. Moreover – think it in the full version in which it exists, it would be impossible. Chukovskij roots and came up with this almanac. It was created by the very epoch, the beginning of the twentieth century, when the circle was so cramped geniuses that they could constantly be provided next to the notebook, puhnuvshey day by day, which Chukovskij, soon realized that he actually started already tried not to leave. Personality Korney Ivanovich, a man unusually intelligent, talented, and that in this case is very important, mobile and sociable, plus features of the era – that is what has created this unique anthology.
To a large extent due to the efforts of Helen Tsezarevny saved and acts house-museum of KI Chukovsky in Peredelkino. She and the Secretary of KI Chukovskiy Clara Israelevna Lozovskaya guides were the first in this museum.
Lydia Korneevna in a letter to David Samoilov describes his daughter: “You do not know what Lyusha. Stop a running horse, in a burning hut! And this is not the characteristic “.
In 1996, after the death of Lydia Chukovskaia Elena Tsezarevna continued with its long-term assistant Zh.O. Khavkina work on the study of its archives and publication of the work.
prints since 1974, the most famous publication “Return Solzhenitsyn Soviet citizenship” (“Book Review”, August 5, 1988), and the memories of BL Pasternak: “Nobel Prize” (“Questions of Literature”, 1990, №2), a collection of articles on Solzhenitsyn “The word finds its way” (together with Vladimir Glotser, 1998). She was the author of numerous comments and articles on the work of his grandfather and mother. Her efforts saw the light “dash” and “House of the Poet” LK Chukovskaia, “Diary” By Chukovsky, correspondence father and daughter.
The last interview E.TS. Chukovskaia “WP” in connection with the awarding her Solzhenitsyn Prize in 2011.
You are a chemist by education and worked as a chemist. As you all do the same literary work? It was a conscious choice?
Elena Chukovskaia: The choice was largely accidental. I graduated from high school in 1949. It was a terrible time. Roots Ivanovich was expelled from everywhere, especially Lydia Korneevna, and it seemed to me that the humanities have – deadly, and need to do something practically useful. So I went to the Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, graduating and worked at the Institute of Organoelement Compounds, defended her thesis.
But the 65-year Korney Ivanovich gave me a “Chukokkala” – handwritten almanac, which he was very proud, it was a great value. And this time he was approached by the publishing house “Art”, began to prepare for publication Almanac. KI I was attracted to these classes: seek comments, inquiries in the library. So I started “Chukokkala”; other things Korney Ivanovich during his life, I was not involved.
At about the same time I met with Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who, after the confiscation of the archive in September 1965, we lived in the country, and then we have to apartment. He gradually accustomed me to his business. Many of his works were in Moscow, and he lived in Ryazan, and visited briefly. He received many letters came to him citizens from other cities, it was necessary to print and distribute samizdat manuscript, and all this whirlwind for some time became my occupation.
In the 69th year died Korney Ivanovich. I, quite unexpectedly, turned out to be the heir of his copyright and his archive. Literally on the same days Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the Writers’ Union, the big disgrace got Lydia Korneevna because books printed abroad and an open letter to Sholokhov. In addition, she had already seen very bad, hardly able to walk to the library, meanwhile, was engaged in his “Notes on Akhmatova,” which also required a large number of references. Lydia Korneevna was faithful assistant, Josephine Oskarovna Khavkin. She read it and looked into her paper, so I a while just put things in the library reference.
In Korney Ivanovich lay unprinted diaries. In addition to the diaries and letters of the basic things all except “Chukokkala” was published, and “Chukokkala” then it was not possible to print.
But he’s prepared it for publication, was forced to withdraw large chunks?
Elena Chukovskaia: Yes, there were a lot of interesting cases. For example, he wrote an article about Gumilev. Then work as follows: took pictures of pages, so-called “control print”, and handed them to the publisher that the artist could do the layout. Head of artistic edited, Inna G. Rumyantsev, told me later that the control print with hand ENU were simply stolen from the publishers, and, to our surprise, we then read them in three volumes Gumilev, who went abroad. And an article about Gumilev Korney Ivanovich from the first edition of the almanac seized.
“Chukokkala” was created from 1914 to 1969, it is a huge amount of unique material, and published it a few times, in different versions. What happened in 2006 in the “Russian way”, do you like?
Elena Chukovskaia: Yes, very much. At the presentation of the anthology in the “Russian way” we put 11 stands materials that were seized by censorship from the first edition of the anthology (1979). And it was not even clear that then, in the first edition, published because records were seized Nabokov, Gumilev, Gorky, Blok, Hippius and other less well-known authors, with very expressive texts. At the presentation of the whole room was stuck by these removal of pages of the almanac – and that book in 1979, with all denominations, has caused great interest.
In the 1990s, former employees of the publishing house “Art” had planned to publish two volumes : fax and how comments. But in the end, publishing disintegrated. Then print only one that comments with small “marks” the album pages. To get a directory instead of the almanac. Then the publishing house “Mon Plaisir” yet issued that facsimiles – edition of one hundred copies. I’ll show it to you, because you have not see anywhere else.
Roots Ivanovich was not afraid to keep the house such archival material, which he noted forbidden Gumilev and Hippius?
Elena Chukovskaia: He kept diaries and although there are a lot of pages torn out. The fact that the ratio to the roots Ivanovich change over time. In 1957, it is widely celebrated the seventy anniversary, and he became like a patriarch, then in 1962 he was awarded the Lenin Prize, the title of the Oxford professor – and at the end of the sixties attitude changed again, but somehow we still do not waiting for what he would withdraw “Chukokkala.” Although he never did it gave, showing only their hands. He repeatedly spoke to her, only the total volume of material was unknown. He always loved to speak in public – on the radio, in kindergartens, on New Year trees in the Column Hall …
Do Korney Ivanovich had disputes with Lydia Korneevna about the attitude to the Soviet system and the leadership? After all, they were very different people, and different were their diaries?
Elena Chukovskaia: No, there was no dispute. In Korney Ivanovich really have different blog entries, but in fact kept very carefully. For example, my mother’s diaries are preserved only in 1938, and the rest were burned. Roots I. wrote less cautious, sometimes written with a note “specifically for the show to the authorities.” It was important for the publication of books, for the sake of it went to some compromises. He was a completely different person than Lydia Korneevna. Blogs can be seen that at first he treated with a lot of stress to what is happening, and then tried to fit into this time. He was a man without acting, able to maneuver, finally, he had a literary name. If his battle for a fairy tale – he took on Nekrasov, if Nekrasov could not – doing translations.
Lydia Korneevna – no. She handed over the job to the editor, she made some comment – and it simply took the job. In the sixties published her book “In the laboratory, the editor,” a book about the Decembrists in Siberia, then she did Maclay, that is, the work she had. But since the mid-sixties it began to shoot at life KI simply not published, and after his death was excluded from the Writers’ Union and was a complete ban on the mention of her name in the Soviet press.
then asked to return?
Elena Chukovskaia: She did not want to come back into the Union. Funny as it may sound, this is the case, basically, my hands. The end of the eighties was a difficult time, and then members of the Union were given rations. Secondly, there was really need writing paper, and the paper was not any. Members of the Union it again, betrayed. And I almost forcibly made her take this ticket, which was, of course, to no avail. I very rarely even bring myself to go to the House of Writers, and only for her it was not necessary. Although in 1994 she received the State Prize for his “Notes on Akhmatova.” But then she was already really bad eyesight, it does not actually go out. Award in St. George’s Hall for her I received.
By Tatiana Shabaeva