Director of “Tarhan” Tamara Melnikova knows how to make the perfect museum-reserve: Russian state award in the field of literature and art in 2014 she had just received from the President, in particular, for the promotion creative heritage Mikhail Lermontov. Does the current legislation to revive the tradition of estate culture? Is it important today that bothered once Lermontov? And where are they – “Heroes of our time”? All this “RG” and talked with Tamara Melnikova.
In the past year, not only celebrated the anniversary of Mikhail Lermontov – its 200th anniversary, but also “Tarhan” was “round” date – the museum 75 years. On this occasion, much restored, reconstructed, put in order. What else is needed “Tarhan,” to be the ideal open-air museum?
Tamara Melnikova: It’s hard to say what the ideal museum-reserve. For me, “Tarkhany” Tarkhan manor Lermontov Museum-Reserve – a place where Lermontov spent half of his life, and we are committed to the ideal of how to restore the character of the estate and its social and economic opportunities, cultural and historical environment in which educated Mikhail . If we say that’s left to do, you will never get the real answer. Why is that? Because the work in the museum, especially in a museum as Lermontov, can be described as “infinite approximation” to understanding his poetry, his personality. Visitors to understand that this phenomenon is unique in Russian culture – Lermontov.
Infinitely approach also because the monuments that exist, some from the end of the XVIII century, the other from the beginning of XIX, tend to grow old, they have to be restored. And this work is constant, never-ending. Much remains to be studied and do, but today the painful, unresolved major issues we have.
What was the most difficult to restore?
Tamara Melnikova: We have started preparing for the anniversary of the 6 years prior to this date, I am well aware that it is very difficult to meet the 2-4 year. Emotionally heavy was the work on the restoration of the chapel restoration burial Lermontov. His grandmother, Elizabeth A. Arsenyev, burying her grandson on the then existing customs: crypts lined with brick, buried in the tomb and covered. Such vaults Elizabeth A. made three: the first buried her husband, next – his daughter, the mother of Mikhail, and then the poet. Above them erected a chapel. She herself was buried, too, in the “special” crypt. In 1939, when the museum opened, someone had the idea to open access to the tomb of Lermontov. I do not know what guided these people, but the entrance was placed under the ground, destroyed burial grandmother, destroyed the crypt, which is buried Lermontov and his lead coffin, which was brought from Pyatigorsk in 1842, put on display.
People were going down for a long time, stood by the coffin. Not such was the desire of Elizabeth Alexeevna, when she erected this chapel. We have restored everything as it was at the Arsenyev. It’s not just the historical justice, but also an ethical and religious norms. To our delight, none of the visitors do not reproach us in this.
In Need has been museum and educational center for visitors to the museum: a hotel, exhibition hall, conference room, dining room and so on. It was necessary to “punch” and a building permit, and construction financing. Everything was decided with the support of VV Putin’s.
The keeper of the house-museum in Moscow Lermontov Lentsova Valentine told me that his dream to establish a connection with all the Lermontov Museum: Taman, Pyatigorsk, Tarkhany. So that visitors in live time could see the interesting things happening there, connect to some actions in a mode online. Do you support this idea?
Tamara Melnikova: My answer is unequivocal – no. I was not the first time I say that I do not want to let all of these media resources in the “Tarkhany.” People arrived in “Tarkhany” should breathe fresh air, listen to wonderful poetry of Lermontov, a break from computers, televisions and other equipment. Man to the extent currently tortured flow of diverse information and think that somehow he had no time. I want to “Tarkhany” became a place where “and believe, and cries, and so easy, easy …”.
Perhaps this interactive communication makes sense in the big holidays, anniversaries. But not often. I love Valentine Bronislavovna Lentsovu, a good and competent people just do not know, but this idea is not to my liking.
“Tarhan” know the problems faced by other reserve museums: the struggle for conservation areas, landscape conservation, cottage villages with?
Tamara Melnikova: Even as familiar. And maybe, these problems will affect us more. There were many attempts to use, firstly, the museum-reserve for all sorts of festivities and amusement, do not have nothing to do with Lermontov, or his time. We are not easy, but strongly managed. A few years ago, a businessman Penza took 10 hectares of our territory, though not reserved, and the buffer zone. There was a struggle. And we won. Do not give an inch of ground. It is given always very hard. My position is that as soon as you see that there is a threat, or just heard about it, we must take immediate action, not bethink when driven equipment, excavated and began to build something.
Museum workers say a lot about the legal framework necessary to defend the rights of these protected sites. What changes in the legislation you are missing?
Tamara Melnikova: The main thing – to work those laws that have been adopted. Many do not have regulations. But you can make and additions to the existing order. For example, in which the role played by security agencies Provincial Department of Culture. Some of these functions to control the preservation of landscapes and adherence reserved and protected areas should be transferred to the reserves themselves. When construction begins, no one in the central provincial city did not yet know. It begins correspondence. It is always delayed and sometimes leads to irreparable things. Why do people blame on features that may act as the museum-reserve? We are also state institutions, better know the situation more see here on the spot. I would like this to become a lawful order.
For you literary education, he graduated from the historical-philological faculty of Penza Pedagogical Institute. Admit to Lermontov was always partial or fell “on duty” as running “Tarkhany”?
Tamara Melnikova: I knew Lermontov not well enough to give him the preference. But when I began to deal with them, I have conquered the world – and it’s not a “duty”. Lermontov amazing person and so when you start to perceive it, to open – feel that it is absolutely boundless, inexhaustible and very modern. In addition, and in tune with my perception of the world.
How many more blind spots in his biography of the poet or all of the puzzles have unraveled?
Tamara Melnikova: Hard to say. He’s miserable life, little material about him survived. I am not suggesting that there may be some fundamental new discoveries. We have to peck at grain by grain, something stored in the archive. We work a lot in the Penza archive, find materials about his family, about some of the details of everyday life, they are also largely help to gradually learn Lermontov. But still the main source – it is his poetry, creativity. Good help – memoirs of contemporaries Lermontov.
You say that Lermontov date. And what of that care Lermontov important now?
Tamara Melnikova: In the first place, the theme of saving Russia, its independence. Lermontov felt that his country is rich in absolutely everything: and subsoil, and the people and their emotions, talents. It is not just understood he loved. All that it was very expensive. He must by nature was a Russian man with all the strengths of this concept: fearlessness and love for his native land, sincerity. Lermontov was afraid that Russia may lose its peculiarity. He wrote that we live an independent life and to bear its distinctive universal. He believed that we should not reach for Europe. There is a wonderful poem “Again, people … opment,” he wrote in response to European newspapers and magazines, accused Russia of all sins in connection with the uprising in Poland. He wrote expressively, hard and passionately defending their country. In addition, he was a soldier, a member of the Caucasian War, which was exiled king.
In the modern poets follow? Among them someone who means so as Lermontov, contemporaries?
Tamara Melnikova: I know many poets. I do not want to offend anyone, but if measured by Lermontov – this so I’m afraid no one in Russia, and will not be. Tolstoy wrote that if this young man had lived a little longer, it would not need neither he nor Dostoevsky. Chekhov insisted that he taught to write in this way: would take Lermontov product lines and deciphered them. Akhmatova wrote that the word obey him like a snake-caster. Block said that most literary critics and writers eschew Lermontov, because it many simply “too tough”.
Lermontov – an amazing figure, it is difficult to put on a par with those who lived in the golden age of Russian literature. And now – even not talking. There is talent, and there are geniuses. Lermontov – a genius.
The hero of our time – sustainable phrase that came into our lives. In whose books seek today students of characters – to use them to find answers to important questions essential time?
Tamara Melnikova: We have somehow got used to interpret the strange image of the hero of our time . Lermontov could see who was the hero of his time. I totally agree with the fact that Pechorin “superfluous man”. What is he overweight? He served, he combat officer. Yes, he was a fatalist, he was bored – because it failed to realize themselves and the lifetime is wasted. This now happens. But the man himself makes himself. Every age has its heroes. Lermontov need to learn how to see them, how to write. Pechorin – a person is not so much mysterious as unrealized. It behaves irresponsibly – but not in relation to their employment and in relation to women. Learning is possible even from his mistakes. It’s also very important.
And the modern literature has much to learn?
Tamara Melnikova: I very much like Chekhov, like the playwright Ostrovsky. They are in our modern time. In order not to leave the head in the quagmire of the time that’s necessary to read such literature. Read and Lermontov – it helps me to live.
The newly discovered Agatha Christie. Whatever I may say that it is only a detective writers – for me it is a profound philosopher. Writer smart, shrewd. Another discovery for me – Scottish novelist Rosamunde Pilcher. Can not read it with indifference. She loves everything – life, people, their homeland. Here we would have found a writer who would have started writing about Russia.
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