August 27, Russian filmmakers celebrate their professional holiday – Day of Russian Cinema. On this day in 1919 it was adopted by the Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR on nationalization kinodela in Soviet Russia. Since that time, all private cinemas, studios, rental office, as well as all the photo and cinema trade and industry came under the jurisdiction of the People’s Commissariat of Education. However, the very Russian cinema existed and was loved by the audience long before the decree.
In 1908, director and businessman Alexander Drankov put the first Russian game silent short film “Ponizova libertines” (“Stepan Razin”). In the 1910s Vladimir Gardin (“Gentry”), Yakov Protazanov (“The Queen of Spades”, “Father Sergius”), Eugene Bauer (“Twilight of the female soul,” “Criminal Passion”) and other masters of direction to create a competitive genre cinema where there was a place and adaptations of Russian classics and melodramas with detectives and military-action adventure.
In 1911, the company Khanzhonkov “by royal permission” took off incredibly complex at the time the picture of the “Defense of Sevastopol” with the field battle scenes. By the second half of the 1910s in Russia were lit screen star – Vera Cold, Ivan Mozzhukhin, Vladimir Maximov.
The 1917 October Revolution served many well-known Russian filmmakers springboard to the West. In place of the Silver Age of Russian cinema has come a Soviet film avant-guard of the 1920s. The ideological censorship in those days has little interest in the form of a literary text, which allowed the film director Sergei Eisenstein to experiment with the “montage of attractions” in his famous film “Battleship Potemkin” (1925) and “October” (1927). “Battleship Potemkin” was the first domestic color almost a movie with painted black-and-white film by hand a red flag. The sound in the national cinema came only in 1931 with the film “Road to Life” Nicholas Eck.
The favorites of the Russian cinema of the 1930s became a director, who managed not only to master the new expressive possibilities of sound, but also to create the ideological mythology “Great Revolution” – Vasiliev brothers (“Chapaev”), Mikhail Romm (“Lenin in October”, “Lenin in 1918″) and Friedrich Ermler (“The Great Citizen”).
A recent student and assistant Sergei Eisenstein – Grigory Alexandrov (“Jolly Fellows”, “The Circus”, “Volga-Volga”) became the official king of comedy 1930, and his wife Lyubov Orlova – the main star of the screen.
Happy life in the collective farm of Ivan Pyreva film” Kuban Cossacks “. Archive
The Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) dramatically changed the theme and genre spectrum of Russian cinema. After the pilot featurettes “Martial collections” were full-length movies about the war – “Rainbow,” “Invasion”, “It protects the homeland,” “Zoe” and others. In the late 1940s, starring epic of revolution and war (“Unforgettable nineteenth,” “The Battle of Stalingrad”), historical and biographical novels about scientists (“Zhukovsky”, “Przewalski”), generals (“Admiral Nakhimov”, “Admiral Ushakov “) and artists (” Composer Glinka, “” Belinsky “). Sharply the narrowed entertainment kinospektr was presented comedies Grigory Alexandrov (“Spring”) and Ivan Pyreva (“Kuban Cossacks”).
“Thaw” liberalization Kremlin course of the second half of 1950 (after Stalin’s death) caused a sharp increase in filmmaking and the influx of directing-acting debut. Gregory became a prominent figure Chukhray (“Forty first”, “Ballad of a Soldier”, “Clean Sky”). A masterpiece by Mikhail Kalatozov and operator Sergei Urusevskogo “The Cranes Are Flying” won the “Palme d’Or” at the Cannes Festival.
In the mid-1960s was in fact declared war on the Russian auteur cinema does not fit into the framework of socialist realism. The most famous victim of censorship cold was the film of Andrei Tarkovsky’s “Andrei Rublev”.
However, the “thaw” allowed for release not only arthouse films by Andrei Tarkovsky (“Ivan’s Childhood”), Gleb Panfilov (“The No Path Through Fire “) and Larissa Shepitko (” Wings “), but also gave the audience enjoy this fun comedy Leonid Gaidai (” Operation “Y”, “Prisoner of the Caucasus”, “The Diamond Arm”), Eldar Ryazanov (“Beware of the car! “) and George Danelia (” Walking the Streets of Moscow “).
In the 1970-1980 outstanding films and were punished by a minimum circulation of rental (” Mirror “and” Stalker “by Andrei Tarkovsky,” Parade of Planets ” Vadim Abdrashitova, “My Friend Ivan Lapshin” Alexei German). But at the same time have been removed such masterpieces as “Stove-shop” and “Kalina Krasnaya” Vasily Shukshin, “Home” and “Request to speak” Gleb Panfilov, “Unfinished Piece for Mechanical Piano “,” Five Evenings “and” a few days in the life of II Oblomov “by Nikita Mikhalkov,” the word for protection “and” Fox Hunting “Vadim Abdrashitova,” other people’s letters “and” Declaration of Love “Ilya Averbuch,” Flights in Dreams and in Reality “and” The Kiss “by Roman Balayan,” Wartime novel “Peter Todorovski, and many others.
Number of visitors cinemas in Russia was one of the highest in the world. Tens of millions of spectators watched the comedies of Leonid Gaidai (” 12 chairs “,” Ivan Vasilyevich Changes Occupation “), George Danelia (“Athos”, “Mimino”), Eldar Ryazanov (“Irony of Fate”, “Office Romance”, “Station for Two”), spectacular tape Vladimir Motyl (“White Sun of the Desert”) and Alexander Mitta (“Crew”). absolute champion rolled in those years became a melodrama Vladimir Menshov “Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears”, won the “Oscar” and the hit “Pirates of the twentieth century” by Boris Durov.
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on October 1, 1980 “On holidays and memorial days “day on August 27 received the official status and became known as the Day of Soviet cinema.
The wording of the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated November 1, 1988″ On amendments to the legislation of the USSR on holidays and commemorative days’ holiday It was renamed the Day of cinema. Later that day decided to move on December 28 (the day the world celebrated the International Day of the movie).
Some time in Russian Cinema Day is not celebrated. In 2001, in the service of the Ministry of Culture Cinematography Day of Russian Cinema decided to resume.
Today, there are about 40 domestic film studios, which produce around 100 films a year. The share of domestic films in total box office of nearly 30%.
well-deserved award for the film by Sergei Bondarchuk “War and Peace”. Archive
The Soviet and Russian filmmakers received wide international recognition. The winners of the prestigious award “Oscar” were six Soviet / Russian films: in 1943 – a documentary film by Leonid Varlamov and Ilya Kopalin “Moscow Strikes Back”; 1969 – “War and Peace” by Sergei Bondarchuk; 1976 – “Dersu Uzala” Akira Kurosawa (co-production of the Soviet Union and Japan); 1981 – “Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears” by Vladimir Menshov; 1995 – “Burnt by the Sun” by Nikita Mikhalkov; in 2000 – an animated film by Alexander Petrov, “The Old Man and the Sea”.
In 1958, the film by Mikhail Kalatozov “The Cranes Are Flying” received the “Palme d’Or” at the Cannes Film Festival.
The Soviet and Russian films four became owners of the main prize Venice Film Festival – “Golden Lion”. In 1962, the award received a picture of Andrei Tarkovsky’s “Ivan’s Childhood”, in 1991 – the parable of Nikita Mikhalkov’s “Urga – Territory of Love” in 2003 – a drama of Andrei Zvyagintsev’s “The Return” (the film also won the “Golden Lion of the Future” for the best directorial debut). In 2011, the best film of the festival has been recognized by the picture of Alexander Sokurov’s “Faust”.
In 2015, the Day of Russian Cinema in Moscow cinema network Moschino held free screenings of Russian films. On the feast of August 27 in the great hall of cinema “Art” will be showing and discussion of a special film program “The Master and his disciples: Shorts at all times”, organized by the Youth Centre of the Union of Cinematographers, State Institute of Cinematography named after SA Gerasimov and Graduate School of Scriptwriters and Film Directors, which will be showing short feature films of famous film director – Sergei Solovyov, Vladimir Hotinenko, Alexander Kott and Vladimir Kott, etc.
The material is based on information RIA Novosti and open Sources