A huge nine meter spider on thin legs with 26 future heir to the mantle of her belly beneath – the image of a caring mother love. At least, so it was for Louise Bourgeois (1911-2010), French and American artist, sculptor, one of the most important figures of twentieth century art, whose life lasted a year without a century, and creativity – 70.
Her bronze spider Maman, designed for installation in the Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern in 2000, is located in front of the Museum of Contemporary Art “Garage” in Gorky Park, anticipating a meeting with the exhibition “Louise Bourgeois. The structures of existence: Cells”. The exhibition came from the House of Art in Munich, will stay in Moscow until February 12, then go to Denmark, the museum of modern art, “Louisiana”. It allows you to thoroughly acquainted not only with perhaps the most famous series of the artist’s “cell”, created in 1986 for twenty-odd years, but with the “foreboding” of this series in the earlier works.
Although the current” flashback “, built curators allows to reach logical cobwebs links between, say, a beautiful work “Woman-house”, and installations “Cells”, it should be noted that the first way of French from a very wealthy family, one of the main sources of income which was the restoration of old tapestries and their sale, It looked quite typical “modernist.” From his studies at the Paris studio of Fernand Leger and hobbies primitive sculpture (example of Picasso, which opened for African masks Cubists, was much science), she moved toward the expressive abstraction. In any case, immediately after the war in New York City, where she moved with her husband, art critic, her paintings are displayed alongside works by Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Willem de Kooning. Wooden “Persons” first “came out” to the public in 1949, resembled conditional African totems.
But fame came to her much later. Not even in 1966, when a young critic and curator Lucy Lippard, carried away by Dadaism, surrealism, blurring the boundaries of role, including its work in the exhibition “Eccentric Abstraction”. By the way, Louise Bourgeois, which at that time was much over fifty, in the project of young artists perfectly blended with strange objects – “Lair” that sent out clearly to the geometry and to organic matter.
Star it hour came in 1982, when New York showed its retrospective. 70-year-old Louise Bourgeois was the first artist whose solo exhibition was held in the museum. There are, of course, the temptation to link the success of the development of feminist art. But attention to her work alone can not explain this. The paradox is that Louise Bourgeois 70 years have not reaped laurels as one might think, and made a very abrupt, radical leap: from sculpture – to the installation of the object – a habitation of space.
abroad looks like a diorama in 1974 was the “destruction of the father”, in which abstract geometric shapes in purple glow created an image of the grim totemic meal. It is a kind of farewell to the long-dead, still in 1951, his father, whose death Louise experienced painfully hard, struggling with depression for several years, was a step towards her new aesthetics. By installations, brings to mind the time kunstkamery European monarchs and the theater of cruelty of Antonin Artaud. By “cells” whose spaces become “home” pain, fear, aggression, childhood memories. As “Maman”, the sculptor been building not only show their work space (protecting their territory within the walls of the museum), but also to create a personal mythology. For its creation, it used the most difficult to handle material – their own fears, trauma, pain. She has worked with them as others are working with plaster – detached and rational.
One of the first “Cell” was preceded by the text in which it is formulated with equanimity surgeon: “Some artists are all his life, rather than to think. Self-expression excludes the possibility of study”. As for her, she thought, and studied fine. For mythology need a story. Say, for Joseph Beuys it was the basis of his experience downed military pilot, matched and saved the Crimean Tatars. Louise Bourgeois uses the same childhood memories, floating matter “skeleton” of the family of cabinets. First of all – a ten-year affair with her father’s governess, an Englishwoman, who became an unwitting witness to a daughter. Sick mother say about the change of course it could not. Around this “basics” excellent dimmed psychoanalytic explanation. And generously sculptor uses in installations entourage from the arsenal of Freud’s grandfather: a mirror, a bed of parents, phallic symbols … Critics, of course, gladly recognize them. Plus a complete set of attributes of the pain and trauma from the old prosthesis and medical ducks to similarity of the electric chair.
But in addition to personal myth, which is easily transformed into a universal, Louise Bourgeois painstakingly collects even a recognizable set of images and “things “which transformed into a symbol of personal myth. Among the basic – the spider, tapestry cell. Each of the images is obviously dual. The fact that for many spider – the object of an unconscious fear, the artist soon at hand. She and an underlying need this irrational terror as a “base” under the canvas of the ancient myth of the weaver Arachne, turned into a spider by Athena formidable. The myth of Arachne good again, not only because it is known to all, but that refers to the motif of weaving fabric. In the case of Bourgeois – a tapestry that painstakingly restored the mother, to which a child asked Louise sometimes make drawings of the missing fragments. Tapestry became a symbol of the home, children’s world, an integral part of the loss, destruction, injury. From the tapestry artist makes the character’s head, rubbed tapestry of lies on the old children’s swings in the cage “Dangerous Passage”, it can be seen on a chair in the cell, “Confessional”. Fabrics can be treated, they can be touched. They are sensual. Heavy and light, clear and warm, they are good because they are covered with the body and preserve the memory of it. Just as the cells that are in the interpretation of the artist becomes a space of secret memories, grown-secrets temptations voyeurism: child with a tiny stool, passage, bedroom, passage with a spiral staircase …
It is possible, of course, Louise Bourgeois right “space does not exist”, it only “metaphor for the structure of being.” But it must be noted that these metaphors in their cells, it builds up with geometric precision, tying-penetrating colored threads, placed inside the marble fragments of the hands or feet, building models or fragile colored bulbs. Another thing that verified the accuracy of the composition is hiding behind fences and texture of objects, many of whom moved to the installation with flea markets, old buildings, even from her own old workshop. So there is a fourth dimension of its eccentric “castles in the air” – temporary. Architectural installations harmony, rigor calculation, rational analysis of the passions gave a great French school education of the senses and taste. In the end who is not French, he could say with conviction: “Art – a guarantee of sanity?”
The exhibition “Garage” has prepared an extensive educational program. The first film will be this Saturday. For details, see. On museum site .
Found a mistake? Highlight the text with error, and press Ctrl + Enter , to tell us about it.